Magnesium & Muscle Health (Master Page)

Do you play sports, lift weights, and lead an active lifestyle?

Learn how the development, function, energy and repair of our muscles all need magnesium, and how it increases performance.

++ Page Overview

This master page shows how all 6 major aspects of our muscular health need magnesium, followed by a solutions section to help you restore and maintain healthy magnesium levels.

  1. Converting fats and carbs into muscle fuel is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  2. The creatine system in all nerves and muscles is magnesium-dependent.[4,5]
  3. Muscular contraction & relaxation is magnesium-dependent.(video)[2]
  4. The activation of our muscles via our nerves is magnesium-dependent.[3]
  5. The process of building muscle (protein synthesis) is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  6. Making testosterone is impossible without magnesium, and magnesium raises innate production of performance-enhancing hormones.[6,7]
  7. Exercising while magnesium-deficienct contributes to disease.

Simply put, we need magnesium for muscular function and structure  which explains why it’s critical to sport[8] and muscular performance well into old age.[9] 

Before the solutions section, we look at how modern farming and stress levels have made it impossible to get enough magnesium from diet alone. 

++ Helpful tip

This page has a lot of powerful info to help you resolve your problems. 

If you’re busy or want to understand things better, please read each section’s quick summary.

1. Magnesium fuels muscles:

The main reason we eat fat and carbs is because our cells convert them into energy molecules called ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate.[10] Every stage of ATP generation requires magnesium.[1,11] The first stage is when cells (including muscle cells) absorb fats and carbs from our bloodstream:

Magnesium helps muscles absorb fuel

Carbs (glucose): The hormone insulin lets muscles absorb carbs. It’s made via protein synthesis (which requires magnesium)[12-16] by beta cells that function better with magnesium.[17] Insulin receptors also need magnesium.[18-22] All this explains why magnesium supplements improve our cells’ sensitivity to insulin[23], which is desired by all athletes.

Fats (fatty acids): When we burn body fat, the hormones glucagon and growth hormone force fat cells to release their fat stores so muscle cells can aborb and use them for energy. These two hormones are made via protein synthesis. Fats then require special transporters to enter cells.[24] They are also made via magnesium-dependent protein synthesis.[12-16]  

Magnesium converts fat & carbs into energy

Muscle cells convert glucose and fatty acids into energy in three sequential phases. The first phase happens in the cell, and the second and third happen inside the cell’s mitochondria: the energy factories that produce 90% of a cell’s energy.[25,26]

 

PHASE 1:

In the first phase, glucose and fatty acids each undergo their own multi-step process that breaks them down into smaller molecules called Acetyl-CoA:

Glucose undergoes glycolysis. Seven of the ten steps in glycolysis need magnesium. Because each step needs the prior step to occure first, glycolysis is impossible without magnesium.[27]

Fatty acids undergo beta oxidation[28]. Each step again depends on the previous, and the entry step needs magnesium, which makes beta-oxidation impossible without magnesium.[29]

 

PHASE 2: 

The smaller Acetyl-CoA molecules now enter our mitochondria for phase 2:

The citric acid cycle is the first of these two phases. It has 7 steps, all of which cannot happen without the prior step. Four of these steps required enzymes that need magnesium, making this entire process impossible without magnesium.[29]  The citric acid cycle creates even smaller molecules called electron carriers, which enter the final and most important phase of ATP generation, where most of the ATP is made:

 

PHASE 3: 

Oxidative phosphorilation[30], is the last phase of ATP production where mitochondria use oxygen and electrons to create large amounts of ATP. The fourth step that uses the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme, requires magnesium.[31] Magnesium also plays a crucial role In the final step where the enzyme ATP synthase finally produces the ATP molecules.[32]

Simply put, without magnesium we can’t make energy. This explains why metabolic disorders like diabetes are associated with low magnesium intake.[33,34]

Magnesium is ATP energy!

In addition to converting fat and carbs into ATP, magnesium also makes up an actual physical component of the ATP molecule, which is why the molecule is actually called Mg-ATP.[35,36] This is why magnesium is involved in all biochemical processes involving ATP [37] and why ATP is biologically inactive when not bound to magnesium.[20]

In other words, our muscles need magnesium for energy production.

1. Summary

Our muscles can’t absorb fuel sources without magnesium because insulin, growth hormone, glugacon and fatty acid transporters all depend on it.

Our muscles also need magnesium to convert carbs and fats into usable energy molecules called ATP.

Magnesium is also a key physical component of every ATP molecule, and deficiency is linked to diabetes.

2. Magnesium & creatine:

Creatine’s proven ability to increase muscular performance is due to its role in helping our mitochondria make ATP[38]: 

Once an ATP molecule has been used for its energy, it becomes an ADP molecule (adenosine di phosphate). The enzyme creatine kinase then turns ADP back into ATP. However in order for creatine kinase to exert its effect on ADP, ADP must be bound to magnesium[39]. In other words, the creatine pathway needs magnesium.

Thus if you supplement creatine and are deficient in magnesium, then much of your creatine is being wasted. This explains why creatine supplements together with magnesium supplements work better than creatine alone[40,5]. It may also shed light on why some people respond less to creatine: they have substantially lower magnesium levels. 

Because our brain and nerves also need the creatine system[41,42], creatine levels in our brain determine cognitive performance [43] and creatine supplementation also increases mental performance [44], which is critical to most sports.

Creatine also protects against brain toxicity[45], thus people who engage intense exercise frequently without supplementing creatine and magnesium may be contributing to neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s[46].

2. Summary

Creatine helps muscular performance because it can boost ATP production.  Because this pathway is magnesium-dependent, we need magnesium for creatine to benefit us.

Creatine & magnesium supplements work better together.

3. Magnesium and muscle contraction & relaxation:

When muscles contract they shorten and thus pull on the bones they are attached to, allowing us to move and exert force. When they relax, they restore energy and return to neutral position to allow for the next contraction.

Magnesium is critical in regulating both muscular contraction and relaxation,[2]and without it neither are possible. The 2 minute video below[v1] shows what happens during muscular contraction & relaxation and how magnesium is involved:

To sum up, muscle fibres consist of rows of long myosin filaments staggered in between rows of actin heads, running parallel to the muscle fibre they are in. The muscle fibres shorten when the myosin heads bind to the actin filaments: this causes the muscle to contract.

Calcium, ATP and ADP are all needed for the myosin to continuously bind and release actin enough times to complete a full contraction. Both ATP and ADP must be bound to magnesium in order to work.[11,20,37,47] 

Once the muscle is fully contracted, calcium must leave the environment and re-enter the muscle fibre’s sarcoplasmic reticulum from whence it came, in order for the muscle to relax again. Magnesium is required for the uptake of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. [11,47-51]

Magnesium also plays a key role in regulating the speed of muscular contraction by modulating actin binding and ADP release in myosin, based on its role in five different types of myosin fillaments found in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.[52]

Simply put, muscular contraction and relaxation is heavily magnesium-dependent, which helps explain why muscle spasms and twitches are one of the most common symptoms of magnesium deficiency. Athletes should especially mind their magnesium levels and supplement with a natural form of magnesium that can restore overall levels.

3. Summary

Contrary to popular belief, muscles need magnesium for both their relaxation and contraction.

The short video explains this in detail.

4. Magnesium activates our muscles:

Before our muscles contract, they must first be activated by our nervous system:

The neuro-muscular junctions are the points at which our nerves attach to our muscle cells. Our brain sends signals that pass through our spinal cord and then along its branching nerves to end up at these neuromuscular junctions.

When the signal passes from the nerve to the muscle fibre, it stimulates the release of calcium from the fibre’s sarcoplasmic reticulum into the vicinity of the actin and myosin filaments. Calcium’s interaction with troponin unblocks tropomyosin, allowing myosin to bind to actin and start the muscular contraction.

Reading our brain & nervous system page explains how the transmission of nervous signals, as well as the entire central nervous system as a whole, are dependent on magnesium. [3] Simply put, muscular contraction itself, as well as the nervous signalling that stimulates it, are both impossible without magnesium.

4. Summary

Before contracting, our muscles are first activated by nerves. 

Magnesium is central to all major aspects of nervous system function.

5. Magnesium builds & repairs muscle:

The actual process of building muscle – called muscle protein synthesis – is also impossible without magnesium. This is where our muscle cells assemble the digested amino acids from the protein we ate, into more specific proteins that add to our muscle tissue.

Both phases of protein synthesis are impossible without magnesium:

1.   Selecting and copying the section (gene) of our DNA that has the instructions to build a muscle-protein.  This phase is magnesium dependent for several reasons:

  • The DNA helicase and topoisomerase enzymes that unwind our DNA so the gene can be copied, are magnesium-dependent. [53-57]
  • The RNA polymerase enzyme which makes the copy of the gene once it has been unwound, is magnesium-dependent. [58-60]
  • The DNA ligases which continuously repair these genes that have the instructions to make muscle proteins, are magnesium dependent.[61,62]

2.  The process of turning this newly copied gene into an actual muscle protein. This phase is magnesium-dependent because the enzyme responsible for this process – the ribosome – also cannot function without magnesium.[15,16]

Simply put, it is physically impossible to build muscle in the absence of magnesium, which explains why magnesium deficiency is associated with decreased muscle protein synthesis.[63] 

We know building muscle requires magnesium, but what stimulates it?

Magnesium stimulates muscle building

Muscle cells engage protein synthesis in response to three interrelated stimuli:

  • Intense exercise (requires magnesium for ATP/energy)
  • Growth hormones: IGF, insulin, human growth hormone (all made via magnesium-dependent protein synthesis)
  • Spikes in blood amino acid levels – (whose digestion is magnesium dependent)

Not only do these factors require magnesium, but they all stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating a cell-signalling pathway called mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin.[64-73] This is the major pathway for all cells including muscle cells to stimulate protein synthesis.[74-79]

It does this by reducing protein breakdown/recycling known as autophagy [80-85], while simultaneously increasing factors of protein synthesis such as the function and even creation of new ribosomes,[86-88] the enzymes that assemble amino acids into proteins.

mTOR is magnesium dependent:

While mTOR’s complexity spans beyond the scope of this article, the critical factor here is that this muscle-building pathway is regulated and facilitated by magnesium both directly[89], and via ATP, which explains why low ATP causes a reduction in mTOR signalling and thus protein synthesis[76,90], and why mTOR inhibitors operate by competing with ATP. [91,92]

Let’s remember: ATP must be bound to magnesium as Mg-ATP, in order for this to work. Simply put, our muscle cells’ mTOR pathway for building muscle, is magnesium-dependent.

5. Summary

Muscles grow after training when muscle cells assemble dietary amino acids into muscle proteins.

This process is called protein synthesis, and both its phases (gene selection and protein assembly) need magnesium.

Magnesium also helps stimulate protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway.

6. Magnesium, performance & hormones:

Magnesium enhances energy

Magnesium’s role in every major factor of muscular structure and function helps explain why magnesium supplementation increases overall physical performance, while a deficiency reduces performance[93-99].

These performance enhancing effects can be attributed to several additional factors, including magnesium raising red blood cell and hemoglobin levels thereby increasing oxygen delivery to the muscles.[100] Magnesium increases oxygen uptake, delivery and efficiency of use in both athletes[101-104], and older women[105], and its deficiency results in increased oxygen requirements during exercise.[106]

This leads to another energy related, proven mechanism of magnesium’s performance-enhancing effects: it increases glucose and thus energy in our muscles and brain.[107] This helps explain why magnesium supplementation enhances the effects of creatine supplementation, which is largely related to glucose and energy production.[5]

While keeping on the theme of energy for muscular performance, physical activity is known to reduce thyroid hormone: the most potent hormone for increasing human energy production. Magnesium supplementation prevents thyroid hormone from dropping during and after exercise.[7]

Magnesium & testosterone

Increased magnesium intake is also associated with strength gains[108], including performance in compound resistance exercises like the bench press[109]. 

This can be attributed both to magnesium’s profound impact on energy metabolism, and its strong association with anabolic hormones IGF-1 and testosterone[110], which explains why magnesium raises testosterone levels.[6]

Magnesium’s effects on our testosterone levels should come as no surprise however, because it is impossible for the human body to make testosterone without magnesium:

Testosterone is a steroid hormone, meaning our body makes it out of cholesterol.[111] The conversion of cholesterol into testosterone takes place in the testicles’ Leydig cells, and – among several other enzymes – it requires the enzymes: p450ssc and p450c17.[112]

All enzymes in the p450 family are magnesium dependent.[113] Simply put, any efforts to raise testosterone in our body naturally while we are magnesium deficient, cannot possibly yield maximal results.

6. Summary

It’s biologically impossible to make performance hormones like thyroid and testosterone without magnesium.

Magnesium boosts performance in all age groups due to its role in hormone and energy production. 

7. Exercise, magnesium deficiency & disease:

Our nervous and muscular systems’ dependence on magnesium explain why intense and endurance exercise significantly deplete magnesium and increase magnesium requirements [114-116]. Thus it is no surprise that active people and athletes are usualyl magnesium-deficient. This deficiency can directly increase risk of major diseases. Think about it logically:

Protein synthesis – which requires magnesium – is needed for building and repairing muscle, AND for the daily regeneration of our DNA and vital organs.

When we engage intense exercise, we activate our nervous system’s fight-or-flight response. This causes our body to prioritize our magnesium for the protein synthesis of our muscles before our organs, because our muscles are what the body uses in a fight-or-flight situation.

The problem is that this environment of muscle protein synthesis prioritization, lasts for up to 36 hours.[117,118] If we don’t supplement the additional magnesium for the daily regeneration of our DNA and organs, then our DNA and organs incur excessive damage, which explains why magnesium supplementation reduces DNA damage in professional athletes.[119]

Based on everything we’ve learned about magnesium’s role in our muscular and all other bodily systems, the fact that it has become nearly impossible to satisfy daily magnesium requirements from diet alone becomes extremely important:

7. Summary

Exercise performance & recovery both use lots of magnesium.

Every vital organ needs magnesium for their daily regeneration and function.

An active lifestyle without magnesium supplementation can thus rob our organs of magnesium and increase risk of disease.

8. Why Our Magnesium Levels Are Now Dropping:

Figure 1 is a general representation of the trends of the three primary factors that affect the magnesium levels in our body everyday. The fourth line represents our ability to make our own magnesium, which will always stay at zero.

  1. Total environmental stress that drains our magnesium
  2. Magnesium in our soil and healthy foods
  3. Our intestine’s ability to absorb magnesium from food and pills

Our adrenals (stress glands) are magnesium-dependent. Stress depletes magnesium, and inflames our intestine, hindering absorption of dietary magnesium. (Even a healthy gut only absorbs 30-40% of a food’s magnesium.)

This means our muscles are competing for their magnesium not only with our other vital functions, but also with increasing amounts of environmental stress and poor intestinal Mg absorption.

A magnesium deficiency graph that shows how our magnesium intake has declined since 1950, while our sources of magnesium depletion have increased. The depletion of our soils and the increasing environmental stress show us that we can no longer get enough magnesium without supplementation. This strengthens the importance of magnesium and muscles.
A magnesium deficiency graph that shows how our magnesium intake has declined since 1950, while our sources of magnesium depletion have increased. The depletion of our soils and the increasing environmental stress show us that we can no longer get enough magnesium without supplementation. This strengthens the importance of magnesium and muscles.
  1. Total environmental stress that drains our magnesium
  2. Magnesium in our soil and healthy foods
  3. Our intestine’s ability to absorb magnesium from food and pills

Our adrenals (stress glands) are magnesium-dependent. Stress depletes magnesium, and inflames our intestine, hindering absorption of dietary magnesium. (Even a healthy gut only absorbs 30-40% of a food’s magnesium.)

This means our muscles are competing for their magnesium not only with our other vital functions, but also with increasing amounts of environmental stress and poor intestinal Mg absorption.

Summary & Solutions:

Summary: Magnesium essential to muscular performance

Our muscular system is magnesium-dependent. Without magnesium:

  1. Muscles have no energy.
  2. Muscles cannot make use of creatine.
  3. Muscles cannot contract or relax.
  4. Muscles cannot be activated by our nerves.
  5. Muscles cannot rebuild and repair after exercise.
  6. We cannot make testosterone and thyroid hormone.

This helps explain why magnesium improves all-round physical performance.  However intense exercise forces our body to prioritize our magnesium for the health of our muscular system before our vital organs and DNA.

Because our food supply’s low magnesium levels make it near impossible to get enough magnesium from diet, and exercise only further increases magnesium deficiency, magnesium supplementation is strongly advised for all athletes and active people:

Solutions: Safe & smart magnesium restoration

To restore magnesium levels effectively and increase muscular performance and whole-body health, four measures should be taken:

  1. Take a natural, quality magnesium-chloride supplement to restore whole-body magnesium levels. This is the basis of any magnesium restoration protocol.
  2. Take a secondary magnesium supplement for added mental and cardiovascular support, such as magnesium-orotate, taurate, or glycinate.
  3. Eat a magnesium-smart diet and avoid the tricky magnesium-rich foods.
  4. Do your best to reduce the environmental, psychological and physical factors that cause stress and thus deplete magnesium.

Click here to see the magnesium-chloride supplement we trust and recommend.

Click here to learn more about the other types of secondary supplements, including magnesium orotate, glycinate and taurate.

Click here to learn more about magnesium deficiency and the rest of your body parts.

++ References

Video References:

v1: Audio done by iMagnesium.com. All visuals/digital animation/footage have been taken from Microbiotic Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCza9xSRDXF2R49a5iWKkT-g  We thank them for their phenomenal work!

Scientific References:

  1. Biochemistry of magnesium  http://www.uwm.edu.pl/jold/poj1532010/jurnal-16.pdf
  2. Magnesium and the regulation of muscle contraction.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7286246
  3. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System https://www.adelaide.edu.au/press/titles/magnesium/magnesium-ebook.pdf
  4. Advanced Human Nutrition. (pg 344, creatine kinase is magnesium-dependent)  https://books.google.ca/books?id=s4GEAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA344&lpg=PA344&dq=creatine+kinase+magnesium+dependent&source=bl&ots=56GcBb71rz&sig=mrXQ_lUriYCvkOOJnRFTlSVdEBU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjrj8eTvtXMAhUl1oMKHapDDn0Q6AEINzAE#v=onepage&q=creatine%20kinase%20magnesium%20dependent&f=false
  5. Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14506619
  6. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352370
  7. The effects of magnesium supplementation on thyroid hormones of sedentars and Tae-Kwon-Do sportsperson at resting and exhaustion. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984925
  8. New experimental and clinical data on the relationship between magnesium and sport. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2133629
  9. Magnesium and muscle performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study.  http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/84/2/419.full
  10. Adenosine triphosphate. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate
  11. Magnesium basics. http://ckj.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/Suppl_1/i3.full
  12. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11955006
  13. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173199
  14. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717727
  15. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712611 
  16. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279186
  17. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial.(While magnesium’s role in the beta cell’s actual release of insulin is less established than its role in the beta cells creating insulin, this study makes ground on the overall impact of magnesium on beta cells).  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21241290
  18. Separate effects of Mg2+, MgATP, and ATP4- on the kinetic mechanism for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2157363
  19. Role of divalent metals in the activation and regulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2847822
  20. Substitution Studies of the Second Divalent Metal Cation Requirement of Protein Tyrosine Kinase CSK http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi982793w
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  23. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15223977
  24. Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206486
  25. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Mitochondria http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9896/
  26. Mitochondria. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion
  27. Magnesium regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the enzymes involved. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2931560
  28. Fat burning: Beta Oxidation  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_oxidation
  29. Section: “ELEMENTS OF MAGNESIUM BIOLOGY” Subsection: 1.13 Synthesis and activity of enzymes http://www.mgwater.com/durex01.shtml
  30. ATP production: Oxidative phosphorylation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidative_phosphorylation
  31. THE EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY ON OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION http://www.jbc.org/content/228/2/573.full.pdf
  32. Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506126
  33. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868780
  34. Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/12/2604.abstract?ijkey=f923c1120dc6636d93fa39d29c797bee45949288&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  35. Pubchem: MgATP  https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/15126#section=Top
  36. Magnesium in biology (Mg-ATP)  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_in_biology
  37. Magnesium metabolism. A review with special reference to the relationship between intracellular content and serum levels.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3056314
  38. The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2278998/
  39. Effects of Ca, Mag, and EDTA on Creatine Kinase Activity in Cerebrospinal Fluid http://www.clinchem.org/content/25/1/147.full.pdf
  40. Synergistic Effects of Magnesium and Creatine on Ergogenic Performance in Rats. http://jrnlappliedresearch.com/articles/Vol3Iss1/ASHMEAD.htm
  41. Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18502307
  42. Functional aspects of creatine kinase in brain. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7805577
  43. Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484486
  44. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691485/
  45. Protective Effect of the Energy Precursor Creatine Against Toxicity of Glutamate and β-Amyloid in Rat Hippocampal Neurons http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0741968.x/full
  46. The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer’s Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits file:///C:/Users/Matt/Downloads/035936.pdf
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  48. Magnesium dependence of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6269901
  49. Effect of Magnesium on the Calcium-dependent Transient Kinetics of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ATPase, Studied by Stopped Flow Fluorescence and Phosphorylation. http://www.jbc.org/content/258/7/4453.full.pdf
  50. Calcium efflux from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: Effects of calcium and magnesium. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022282878903693
  51. The Binding of Calcium and Magnesium to Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles as Studied by Manganese Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1978.tb12017.x/pdf
  52. Magnesium Modulates Actin Binding and ADP Release in Myosin Motors http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2014/07/08/jbc.M114.562231
  53. Eukaryotic DNA helicases: essential enzymes for DNA transactions. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1330454
  54. DNA helicases: enzymes with essential roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8141804
  55. A DNA helicase from human cells.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1702201
  56. Human DNA helicase V, a novel DNA unwinding enzyme from HeLa cells.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8389437
  57. Purification and properties of human DNA helicase VI.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7543199
  58. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11955006
  59. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173199
  60. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717727
  61. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22712611 
  62. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279186
  63. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. Its diagnosis, occurrence and treatment in diuretic therapy and its consequences for growth, protein synthesis and growth factors. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8036903
  64. Insulin signalling to mTOR mediated by the Akt/PKB substrate PRAS40. http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/v9/n3/full/ncb1547.html
  65. mTOR signaling in growth control and disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3331679/
  66. Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) by Insulin Is Associated with Stimulation of 4EBP1 Binding to Dimeric mTOR Complex 1. http://www.jbc.org/content/281/34/24293.short
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