Magnesium & Heart Health (Master Page)

Do you have worrisome symptoms or a family history of heart disease? Learn how every vital process of the cardiovascular system requires magnesium, and why unresolved deficiency can lead to heart disease.

++ Page Overview

A recent analysis of over 313,041 people determined that low magnesium in our body and diet means increased risk of heart disease.[1] This master page looks at all 6 of magnesium’s roles in heart health, followed by a solutions section to show you how to restore and maintain healthy magnesium levels.

  1. Magnesium fuels the heart.
  2. Magnesium protects our heart’s pump & regulates acidity.
  3. Magnesium prevents heart attacks.
  4. Magnesium provides elasticity for our heart and blood vessels.
  5. Magnesium deficiency and atherosclerosis: CHOLESTEROL IS NOT THE CAUSE!!!
  6. Magnesium stops calcification of our heart and arteries.

Before the solutions section, we look at how modern farming and stress levels have made it impossible to get enough magnesium from diet alone. 

++ Helpful tip

This page has a lot of powerful info to help you resolve your problems. 

If you’re busy or want to understand things better, please read each section’s quick summary.

1. Magnesium fuels our heart:

When we look at its size relative to the rest of our body, we see how hard our heart must work to constantly pump blood throughout our entire body and its systems.

For this reason, our heart requires tremendous energy. The energy molecules that fuel our heart are called ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate.[2]  and are made from our dietary fats and carbohydrates (glucose). Humans cannot make ATP without magnesium for two reasons:

  1. Magnesium is needed for all three stages necessary to convert glucose into ATP: glycolysis, the krebs cycle, & oxidative phosphorylation. [3-6] (learn more: magnesium & metabolism)
  2. In addition, an ATP molecule must be bound to a magnesium ion in order for it to be biologically active; magnesium is an actual part of every ATP molecule as well. [3,7]

Furthermore magnesium plays a key role in preventing excess calcium from building up in our soft tissues like our heart and brain where it calcifies them. This is important to our heart’s energy supply because excess calcium in the cells of our organs slows down ATP production[8].

Simply put, magnesium is fundamental for our heart’s energy. This helps explain why the greatest concentration of magnesium is found in our heart; more specifically the left ventricle:

1. Summary

Our heart runs on ATP energy molecules which our heart cells make from carbs and fats. 

Magnesium fuels the process of making ATP, and is also a physical component of the ATP molecule itself.

2. Magnesium protects our heart:

Magnesium protects our heart’s pump

Because our heart’s left ventricle is what pumps blood to the rest of our body, it needs more magnesium than any other part.[9]When our heart and ventricles lack sufficient magnesium, the energy deficit and resulting stress cause inflammation which damages their cells.

Not only has magnesium been shown to reduce inflammation and free radicals in heart tissue since the 1990s[10], but it also reduces harmful free radicals in our ventricles and preserves their function during acute stress. [11]

This sheds light on why low magnesium is a powerful risk indicator of poor ventricular health independent of any other cardiovascular risk factors [12], and why magnesium helps suppress potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmia [13-15].

Magnesium has also been suggested as a treatment for ventricular tachycardias[16] and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias[17].

Simply put, magnesium is especially vital to our heart’s most important piece: the ventricle/pump that sends out blood, oxygen and nutrients to the rest of our body.

Magnesium regulates heart acidity & rhythm

Enzymes are the molecules that facilitate our vital functions. Alkaline phosphatase is a critical enzyme which regulates our heart’s pH, preventing it from becoming too acidic. This explains why irregularities in alkaline phosphatase are related to the dysfunction of our ventricles[18], and are independently related to cardiovascular mortality.[19]

Both magnesium and zinc facilitate this enzyme’s function [20-23] and regulate its activity under various conditions[24]. Thus magnesium deficiency may contribute to the inability of regulating our heart’s acidity.

Magnesium also regulates our heart’s pacemaker – the sinoatrial node –  which sparks our heart beat, and maintains its rhythm.[25-27] This can be attributed to magnesium’s antagonistic relationship with calcium in the body[28-36] as well as its regulation of the HCN channels which facilitate the sinoatrial node’s pace-making function.[37]

Simply put, magnesium and heart health are linked via magnesium’s regulation of our heart’s acidity and rhythm, without which cardiac death ensues.

2. Summary

Our heart’s ventricle pumps blood to the rest of our body. It needs magnesium for energy, and protection form stress.

Magnesium also treats serious health problems of our ventricles.

Magnesium also protects our heart from acidity, and it keeps a healthy heart beat by regulating our sinoatrial node.

3. Magnesium prevents heart attacks:

Our heart, veins and arteries all consist of smooth cardiac muscle cells that depend on a constant, high concentration of magnesium.[38] Their rhythmic contraction and relaxation is what pumps nutrient-rich blood throughout our body. The contractions depend on an influx of calcium[39], and the relaxation depends on magnesium. [40-43] 

What happens in a heart attack? High calcium and low magnesium cause too much contraction with insufficient relaxation, leading to an eventual seizure of our heart’s muscle. This is also known as a myocardial infarction.

Magnesium’s role in heart relaxation explains why heart attack patients have low levels [44] and why fatal heart attacks are more common when dietary magnesium is lower.[45]

It’s no surprise that magnesium supplementation is critical for helping with, and preventing heart attacks[46-52] and preventing death from heart attacks as well as the onset of recurring heart attacks.[53]

3. Summary

Our heart is a muscle. Calcium makes it contract & magnesium makes it relax.

Heart attacks happen when the heart muscle can’t relax and seizes up.

Magnesium helps to prevent and treat heart attacks.

4. Magnesium gives elasticity to veins and arteries:

Magnesium is also critical to our cardiovascular system’s special physical characteristics:

Our heart, veins and arteries need a special degree of structural integrity and elasticity to handle the constant, heavy flow of blood passing through them. There are three primary structural components that give them these characteristics:

  1. Smooth cardiac muscle provides their contractile properties.
  2. Collagen is the protein that gives them their structural durability.
  3. Elastin is the protein that gives them the elasticity they need to pump blood.

Magnesium is essential to the very existence of these three components, because all are made via the process of protein synthesis, and both phases of this process require magnesium:

  1. The RNA polymerase enzyme that prepares the genetic instructions for collagen, elastin and smooth cardiac muscle is magnesium-dependent. [54,55]
  2. The ribosome enzyme that translates the instructions into actual muscle, collagen, and elastin, also requires magnesium. [56,57] (Learn more: magnesium & DNA)

In addition to creating our blood vessels, magnesium is also needed for the structural core of their elastin fibres, as well as their maintenance via its protective role against the harmful calcifying effects of excess intracellular calcium.[58,59]

Simply put, magnesium is vital to heart health via its role in the structure and function of our cardiovascular system, giving it musculature, durability, and elasticity.

4. Summary

Our veins, arteries and heart all need functionality, durability, and elasticity to stay healthy. They achieve this via 3 types of tissue:

  1. Smooth cardiac muscle
  2. Collagen
  3. Elastin

Magnesium is needed for all 3.

5. Magnesium deficiency and atherosclerosis:

Atherosclerosis & cholesterol misinformation

The public has been told that atherosclerosis (the degeneration of veins & arteries) is caused by dietary cholesterol. This falls apart when we understand that less than 25% of our cholesterol comes from diet, and our body MAKES the rest, and that if we eat and thus absorb a bit more, our body simply reduces its own production to keep levels where they need to be. [60-63]

In other words our body tightly regulates cholesterol levels. Thus, if we have high cholesterol, it’s not from eating too much of it. Rather it’s because our body is making more. 

This helps explain why the scienctific literature clearly shows that dietary and serum cholesterol are not associated with heart disease.[64-68]

In fact these and various other sources[69,70], including carefully analyzed statistics from the World Health Organization[71] show that HIGHER cholesterol intake is correlated with LOWER disease risk, and that cholesterol REDUCTION leads to an increase in total mortality rate.[72]

Why do we make cholesterol? Because life depends on it: 

  • Vitamin D is made from cholesterol (known since 1949!)[73-77]
  • All youth & sex/reproductive hormones are made from cholesterol. [73]
  • All 100 trillion cellular membranes need cholesterol for their structure & function.[78]
  • The protective shield around nerve and brain cells (myelin sheath) is made of cholesterol,[79,80] and its deterioration is what causes multiple sclerosis[81-83], while higher total cholesterol in older age is associated with a reduced risk of dementia.[84]

We need cholesterol, and a large 2015 meta-analysis which analyzed cholesterol studies since 1979 (spanning 17 populations totaling 361,923 people in 19 publications) has put an end to this cholesterol confusion, by making the following conclusions from all the data[85]:

  1. Dietary cholesterol is NOT associated with heart disease.
  2. Dietary cholesterol INCREASES HDL – the “good” cholesterol.

This is why various dietary guidelines regarding cholesterol [86-88] – including those of the U.S. have been updated to reflect this [89].

If dietary cholesterol doesn’t cause atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, what does? And how is magnesium deficiency involved? 

How atherosclerosis happens

The scientific community – not the media –  defines atherosclerosis as a “chronic inflammatory process in combination with fibrous degeneration”[90] which affects medium and large blood vessels with inflammatory lesions. Here is how atherosclerosis develops:

1. Environmental, psychological, physical and dietary factors result in biological stress which causes inflammation in the cells of our blood vessels, disturbing their calcium/magnesium balance. The cell’s calcium rises and its magnesium drops.

2. The inflammation and excess calcium cause physical damage to the blood vessel’s elastin and collagen. This is the “fibrous degeneration” mentioned in the definition of atherosclerosis.

3. Our blood vessels’ energy factories (mitochondria) malfunction from the inflammation, calcification, damage and low magnesium. Thus the blood vessels don’t have enough energy & magnesium for the process of protein synthesis that’s needed to make extra elastin and collagen to repair itself.

4. Our body now sends cholesterol to the blood vessel, whose anti-inflammatory effects and structural properties are a last resort to reduce inflammation and fill in the areas of collagen and elastin deterioration. And while veins and arteries do in fact become more narrow in response to cholesterol’s repair mechanism, the reality is:

Narrowed arteries due to cholesterol repair, are better than…

…arteries with holes from collagen and elastin deterioration (which lead to death if not repaired). 

In the efforts to sell cholesterol-lowering drugs, the pharmaceutical industry via the media and their penetration of the medical establishment have lead us to believe that cholesterol – a vital substance that prevents atherosclerosis from causing death – is actually its cause, when scientists know that the true cause of atherosclerosis is inflammation.

This leads us to why magnesium deficiency is so closely related to atherosclerosis:

Magnesium deficiency & atherosclerosis

None of the problems in atherosclerosis can be resolved without magnesium:

1. Inflammation is the main cause: magnesium fights inflammation because it synthesizes our two main anti-inflammatory molecules: Glutathione[91-94] and Melatonin[95-102]. Simply putmagnesium fights inflammation in our body (short and long term).[103-105]

2. Excess calcium & low magnesium prevent sufficient energy production for making extra collagen and elastin[8]. Magnesium regulates and prevents excess calcium in our cells, facilitating optimal mitochondrial energy production.[3] 

3. Cholesterol prevents the further deterioration of veins and arteries. Magnesium helps maintain healthy levels of HDL cholesterol[85,106-109], AND magnesium is required to make the main anti-ifnlammatory protein in HDL cholesterol: Apolipoprotein A-I.[110,111]

4. Let’s not forget the most basic factor: magnesium is critical for the synthesis and maintenance of elastin and collagen in our blood vessels, whose fibrous deterioration defines atherosclerosis in the first place. [54-59]

As we look at these major roles magnesium plays in our cardiovascular health, it helps us see why magnesium deficiency is linked with cardiovascular inflammation, dammage and atherosclerosis[112-116] which lead to debilitating forms of heart disease if left untreated.

Simply put: we can’t treat or prevent atherosclerosis without sufficient magnesium.

5. Summary

We need cholesterol for VITAL processes in all 100 trillion cells of our body.

Low cholesterol is linked to more disease risk and mortality! Don’t buy into lies of the pharmaceutical companies.

6. Magnesium prevents calcification:

We know that calcium primarily belongs in our bones and teeth. By now we also know that it causes serious damage inside the cells of our organs, tissues and blood vessels, which explains why calcium supplementation has been shown to increase risk of cardiovascular disease.[117,118]

Thus we must be aware of magnesium’s role in keeping calcium out of these vulnerable cells. It does this in three different ways:

  • Magnesium-dependent calcium pumps that remove excess calcium from cells.
  • Magnesium increases calcitonin: a hormone that shuttles calcium into bones instead of tissues like blood vessels.
  • Magnesium decreases parathyroid hormone: which releases calcium from bones, which can then enter tissues.

The fact is that magnesium prevents our organs, tissues and blood vessels from absorbing calcium and suffering the resulting damage. In fact not only does magnesium prevent calcification  in heart muscle cells[119], but it has even been shown to reverse their calcification as well.[120] What is critical to take from this?

It is dangerous to take calcium supplements when we are deficient in magnesium because the calcium has a higher likelihood of entering our soft tissues. This helps explain why calcium supplements can increase the likelihood of vascular events including heart attacks.[121,122]

Given our understanding of how essential magnesium is to our cardiovascular health, it is critical to understand why it has now become near impossible to get enough magnesium from our diet alone:

6. Summary

Calcium buildup in our heart and blood vessels also causes damage which can eventually lead to heart disease.

Magnesium supplementation helps reduce calcification, while calcium supplements can increase our risk of heart disease.

7. Why Our Magnesium Levels Are Now Dropping:

Figure 1 is a general representation of the trends of the three primary factors that affect the magnesium levels in our body everyday. The fourth line represents our ability to make our own magnesium, which will always stay at zero.

  1. Total environmental stress that drains our magnesium
  2. Magnesium in our soil and healthy foods
  3. Our intestine’s ability to absorb magnesium from food and pills

Our adrenals (stress glands) are magnesium-dependent. Stress depletes magnesium, and inflames our intestine, hindering absorption of dietary magnesium. (Even a healthy gut only absorbs 30-40% of a food’s magnesium.)

Thus our cardiovascular system is competing for its magnesium not only with our other vital functions, but also with increasing amounts of environmental stress and poor intestinal Mg absorption.

A magnesium deficiency graph that shows how our magnesium intake has declined since 1950, while our sources of magnesium depletion have increased. The depletion of our soils and the increasing environmental stress show us that we can no longer get enough magnesium without supplementation. This strengthens the importance of magnesium and heart health.
A magnesium deficiency graph that shows how our magnesium intake has declined since 1950, while our sources of magnesium depletion have increased. The depletion of our soils and the increasing environmental stress show us that we can no longer get enough magnesium without supplementation. This strengthens the importance of magnesium and heart health.
  1. Total environmental stress that drains our magnesium
  2. Magnesium in our soil and healthy foods
  3. Our intestine’s ability to absorb magnesium from food and pills

Our adrenals (stress glands) are magnesium-dependent. Stress depletes magnesium, and inflames our intestine, hindering absorption of dietary magnesium. (Even a healthy gut only absorbs 30-40% of a food’s magnesium.)

Thus our cardiovascular system is competing for its magnesium not only with our other vital functions, but also with increasing amounts of environmental stress and poor intestinal Mg absorption.

Summary & Solutions:

Summary: Heart health depends on magnesium

Magnesium is central to all the critical factors of heart health:

  1. Provides the heart’s energy (ATP).
  2. Facilitates and protects our heart’s pump.
  3. Regulates our heart’s acidity and beat/rhythm.
  4. Regulates cardiac muscle contraction and prevents heart attacks.
  5. Synthesizes the muscle, elastin and collagen that provide function, structure, and elasticity.
  6. Helps prevent and improve atherosclerosis and reverses calcification or blood vessels.

Simply put, it is impossible to have a healthy cardiovascular system without magnesium, and the longer we remain deficient the more damage accumulates. Because our food supply’s low magnesium levels make it near impossible to get enough magnesium from diet, magnesium supplementation is advised for therapeutic and preventative cardiovascular measures.

Solutions: Safe & smart magnesium restoration

To restore magnesium levels effectively and increase cardiovascular and whole-body health, four measures should be taken:

  1. Take a natural, quality magnesium-chloride supplement to restore whole-body magnesium levels. This is the basis of any magnesium restoration protocol.
  2. Take a magnesium-orotate supplement which is also helpful for cardiovascular health.
  3. Eat a magnesium-smart diet and avoid the tricky magnesium-rich foods.
  4. Do your best to reduce the environmental, psychological and physical factors that cause stress and thus deplete magnesium.

Click here to see the magnesium-chloride supplement we trust and recommend.

Click here to learn more about the other types of secondary supplements, including magnesium orotate.

Click here to learn more about magnesium deficiency and the rest of your body parts.

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  81. Multiple Sclerosis: A Coordinated Immunological Attack against Myelin in the Central Nervous System http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(00)81107-1?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0092867400811071%3Fshowall%3Dtrue
  82. Focal demyelination in Alzheimer’s disease and transgenic mouse models. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20198482
  83. The absence of myelin basic protein promotes neuroinflammation and reduces amyloid β-protein accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24188129
  84. High total cholesterol levels in late life associated with a reduced risk of dementia. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15911792
  85. Dietary cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/102/2/276.full
  86. 2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk. http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1770218
  87. Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. https://www.norden.org/en/theme/nordic-nutrition-recommendation/nordic-nutrition-recommendations-2012
  88. British Heart Foundation; Reducing your blood cholesterol. https://www.bhf.org.uk/publications/heart-conditions/reducing-your-blood-cholesterol.
  89. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/
  90. Atherosclerosis — An Inflammatory Disease. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199901143400207
  91. Glutathione Biosynthesis. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutathione
  92. Glutathione Synthesis in Human Erythrocytes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC442063/
  93. Role of magnesium in glutathione metabolism of rat erythrocytes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7062145
  94. Effects of Glutathione on Red Blood Cell Intracellular Magnesium. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/34/1/76.full
  95. Melatonin Metabolism in the Central Nervous System. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001211/
  96. Anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin and its metabolites, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), in macrophages. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15975667
  97. Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11268363
  98. Melatonin expresses powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities resulting in complete improvement of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20676767
  99. The Magnesium Factor – melatonin biosynthesis – oxidative stress, pg 172. https://books.google.ca/books?id=BuW6xwqlQfkC&pg=PA172&lpg=PA172&dq=melatonin+biosynthesis+magnesium&source=bl&ots=vaxoOEyveq&sig=hwjGTCJch53S_NIo6Te8zvJHRww&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXwJGExKvOAhVE9x4KHToeAe0Q6AEIQjAF#v=onepage&q=melatonin%20biosynthesis%20magnesium&f=false
  100. Role of cellular magnesium in health and human disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14766364
  101. Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin. http://www.foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/17252/23292
  102. Dietary magnesium deficiency decreases plasma melatonin in rats. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17172005
  103. Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/12/2604.abstractijkey=f923c1120dc6636d93fa39d29c797bee45949288&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  104. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518747
  105. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on inflammatory markers in middle-aged overweight women. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3685774/
  106. Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189530
  107. Hypomagnesemia is linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol irrespective of serum glucose values. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113690
  108. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567569 
  109. Influence of magnesium substitution therapy on blood lipid composition in patients with ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, placebo controlled study.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2719498
  110. HDL-Cholesterol: Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects. http://www.hellenicjcardiol.org/archive/full_text/2004/5/2004_5_324.pdf
  111. Antiinflammatory Properties of HDL. http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/95/8/764.full
  112. Role of magnesium and potassium in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6399344
  113. Cardiovascular risk factors and magnesium: relationships to atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and hypertension. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1844551
  114. Endothelial cells and magnesium: implications in atherosclerosis. www.clinsci.org/content/122/9/397
  115. Magnesium deficiency and endothelial dysfunction: is oxidative stress involved? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18557135
  116. The role of magnesium deficiency in cardiovascular and intestinal inflammation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20971697
  117. Does widespread calcium supplementation pose cardiovascular risk? Yes: the potential risk is a concern.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23418770
  118. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505219
  119. Magnesium prevents phosphate-induced calcification in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229924
  120. Magnesium inhibits Wnt/β-catenin activity and reverses the osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24586847
  121. Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC-Heidelberg). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626900
  122. Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised controlled trial. www.bmj.com/content/336/7638/262
+++ References: Magnesium Deficiency and Cardiovascular Disease

(Sourced from the Center of Magnesium Education & Research)

General:

  1. Seelig M S and Heggtveit H A 1974 Magnesium interrelationships in ischemic heart disease: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 27, 59-79.
  2. Seelig M S 1980 Magnesium Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Disease, Early Roots of Cardiovascular,Skeletal, and Renal Abnormalities. Plenum Medical Book Co, New York & London.
  3. Marier J R 1982 Quantitative Factors Regarding Magnesium Status in the Modern-Day World. Magnesium 1, 3-15.
  4. Seelig M S and Rosanoff A 2003 The Magnesium Factor. Avery Penguin Group, New York. 376 p.
  5. Altura B M and Altura B T 2007 Magnesium:  Forgotten Mineral in Cardiovascular Biology and Atherogenesis. In New Perspectives in Magnesium Research, Nutrition and Health, Eds Y Nishizawa, H Morii and J Durlach. pp 239-260. Springer-Verlag, London.

Heart Disease:

  1. Altura B M 1988 Ischemic heart disease and magnesium. Magnesium 7, 57-67.
  2. Chakraborti S, Chakraborti T, Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S and Ghosh S 2002 Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: a review. Molecular and cellular biochemistry 238, 163-179.
  3. Dittrich S, Germanakis J, Dahnert I, Stiller B, Dittrich H, Vogel M and Lange P E 2003 Randomised trial on the influence of continuous magnesium infusion on arrhythmias following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease. Intensive Care Med 29, 1141-1144.
  4. Franz K B and Bailey S M 2004 Geographical variations in heart deaths and diabetes: effect of climate and a possible relationship to magnesium. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 521S-524S.
  5. Al-Delaimy W K, Rimm E B, Willett W C, Stampfer M J and Hu F B 2004 Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 63-70.
  6. Iezhitsa I N 2005 Potassium and magnesium depletions in congestive heart failure–pathophysiology, consequences and replenishment. Clin Calcium 15, 123-133.
  7. Miller S, Crystal E, Garfinkle M, Lau C, Lashevsky I and Connolly S J 2005 Effects of magnesium on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Heart 91, 618-623.
  8. Yokoyama A, Kikuchi K and Kawamura Y 2005 [Heart rate variability, arrhythmia and magnesium in hemodialysis patients]. Clin Calcium 15, 226-232.
  9. Ueshima K 2005 Magnesium and ischemic heart disease: a review of epidemiological, experimental, and clinical evidences. Magnes Res 18, 275-284.
  10. Ohtsuka S and Yamaguchi I 2005 [Magnesium in congestive heart failure]. Clin Calcium 15, 181-186.
  11. Pokan R, Hofmann P, von Duvillard S P, Smekal G, Wonisch M, Lettner K, Schmid P, Shechter M, Silver B and Bachl N 2006 Oral magnesium therapy, exercise heart rate, exercise tolerance, and myocardial function in coronary artery disease patients. Br J Sports Med 40, 773-778.
  12. Leone N, Courbon D, Ducimetiere P and Zureik M 2006 Zinc, copper, and magnesium and risks for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiology 17, 308-314.
  13. Alon I, Gorelik O, Berman S, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Shteinshnaider M, Weissgarten J, Modai D and Cohen N 2006 Intracellular magnesium in elderly patients with heart failure: effects of diabetes and renal dysfunction. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20, 221-226.
  14. Fuentes J C, Salmon A A and Silver M A 2006 Acute and chronic oral magnesium supplementation: effects on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Congest Heart Fail 12, 9-13.
  15.  Gao X, Peng L, Adhikari C M, Lin J and Zuo Z 2007 Spironolactone reduced arrhythmia and maintained magnesium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure. J Card Fail 13, 170-177.
  16. Nielsen F H, Milne D B, Klevay L M, Gallagher S and Johnson L 2007 Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 121-132.
  17. Adamopoulos C, Pitt B, Sui X, Love T E, Zannad F and Ahmed A 2009 Low serum magnesium and cardiovascular mortality in chronic heart failure: a propensity-matched study. Int J Cardiol 136, 270-277.
  18. Almoznino-Sarafian D, Sarafian G, Berman S, Shteinshnaider M, Tzur I, Cohen N and Gorelik O 2009 Magnesium administration may improve heart rate variability in patients with heart failure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 641-645.
  19. Stepura O B and Martynow A I 2009 Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). Int J Cardiol 131, 293-295.
  20. Mathers T W and Beckstrand R L 2009 Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 21, 651-657.
  21.  Khan A M, Sullivan L, McCabe E, Levy D, Vasan R S and Wang T J 2010 Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 160, 715-720.  Note:  compare negative results in abstract with significant (p = 0.04) for age & sex adjusted results in Table III.  AR
  22. Peacock J M, Ohira T, Post W, Sotoodehnia N, Rosamond W and Folsom A R 2010 Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 160, 464-470.
  23. Chiuve S E, Korngold E C, Januzzi J L, Jr., Gantzer M L and Albert C M 2011 Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 253-260.
  24. Zhang, W., H. Iso, et al. (2012). “Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study.” Atherosclerosis 221(2): 587-95.
  25. Joosten, M. M., Gansevoort, R. T., Mukamal, K. J., Kootstra-Ros, J. E., Feskens, E. J., Geleijnse, J. M., . . . Group, P. S. (2013). Response to Lowered magnesium in hypertension. Hypertension, 62(4), e20.
  26. Khan, A. M., Sullivan, L., McCabe, E., Levy, D., Vasan, R. S., & Wang, T. J. (2010). Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J, 160(4), 715-720.
  27. Misialek, J. R., Lopez, F. L., Lutsey, P. L., Huxley, R. R., Peacock, J. M., Chen, L. Y., . . . Alonso, A. (2013). Serum and dietary magnesium and incidence of atrial fibrillation in whites and in African Americans–Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, 77(2), 323-329.
  28. Abbott, R. D., Ando, F., Masaki, K. H., Tung, K. H., Rodriguez, B. L., Petrovitch, H., . . . Curb, J. D. (2003). Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (the Honolulu Heart Program). Am J Cardiol, 92(6), 665-669.
  29. Liao, F., Folsom, A. R., & Brancati, F. L. (1998). Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J, 136(3), 480-490.
  30. Larsson, S. C. (2013). Urinary magnesium excretion as a marker of heart disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr, 97(6), 1159-1160.
  31. Del Gobbo, L. C., Imamura, F., Wu, J. H., de Oliveira Otto, M. C., Chiuve, S. E., & Mozaffarian, D. (2013). Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr.
  32. Qu, X., Jin, F., Hao, Y., Li, H., Tang, T., Wang, H., . . . Dai, K. (2013). Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One, 8(3), e57720.
  33. Nie, Z. L., Wang, Z. M., Zhou, B., Tang, Z. P., & Wang, S. K. (2013). Magnesium intake and incidence of stroke: Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 23(3), 169-176.
  34. Alghamdi, A. A., Al-Radi, O. O., & Latter, D. A. (2005). Intravenous magnesium for prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Surg, 20(3), 293-299.
  35. Shiga, T., Wajima, Z., Inoue, T., & Ogawa, R. (2004). Magnesium prophylaxis for arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med, 117(5), 325-333.
  36. Dibaba, D. T., Xun, P., & He, K. (2014). Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr, 68(8), 971.
  37. Shah, N. C., Liu, J. P., Iqbal, J., Hussain, M., Jiang, X. C., Li, Z., . . . Altura, B. M. (2011). Mg deficiency results in modulation of serum lipids, glutathione, and NO synthase isozyme activation in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to de novo synthesis of ceramide, serum Mg and atherogenesis. Int J Clin Exp Med, 4(2), 103-118.
  38. King, J. L., Miller, R. J., Blue, J. P., Jr., O’Brien, W. D., Jr., & Erdman, J. W., Jr. (2009). Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits. Nutr Res, 29(5), 343-349.
  39. Maier, J. A. (2012). Endothelial cells and magnesium: implications in atherosclerosis. Clin Sci (Lond), 122(9), 397-407.
  40. Vierling, W., Liebscher, D. H., Micke, O., von Ehrlich, B., & Kisters, K. (2013). [Magnesium deficiency and therapy in cardiac arrhythmias: recommendations of the German Society for Magnesium Research]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 138(22), 1165-1171.

Myocardial Infarction:

  1. Afridi, H. I., Kazi, T. G., Kazi, N., Kandhro, G. A., Baig, J. A., Shah, A. Q., . . . Shah, F. (2010). Potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium levels in biological samples of Pakistani myocardial infarction patients at different stages as related to controls. Clin Lab, 56(9-10), 427-439.
  2. Parsons, R. S., Butler, T. C., & Sellars, E. P. (1959). The treatment of coronary artery disease. Med Proc, 5, 487-498.
  3. Malkiel-Shapiro, B. (1958). Further observations on parenteral magnesium sulphate therapy in coronary heart disease: a clinical appraisal. S Afr Med J, 32(51), 1211-1215.
  4. Malkiel-Shapiro, B., Bershon, I., & Terner, P. E. (1956). Parenteral magnesium sulphate therapy in coronary heart disease. A preliminary report on its clinical and laboratory aspects. Med Proc, 2, 455-462.
  5. Antman, E. M. (2002). Magnesium in Coronaries.  The MAGIC Study. Paper presented at the XXIVth Congress of the European Society of Cardiology, www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441094.
  6. Shechter, M., Hod, H., Couraqui, P., Kaplinsky, & Rabinowitz, B. (1995). Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction when patients are not candidates for thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiol, 75, 321-323.
  7. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. (1995). Lancet, 345(8951), 669-685.
  8. Woods, K. L., Fletcher, S., Roffe, C., & Haider, Y. (1992). Intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: results of the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet, 339(8809), 1553-1558.
  9. Shechter, M., Hod, H., Marks, N., Behar, S., Kaplinsky, E., & Rabinowitz, B. (1990). Beneficial effect of magnesium sulfate in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol, 66, 271-274.
  10. Feldstedt, M., Boesgaard, S., Bouchelouche, P., Svenningsen, A., Brooks, L., Lech, Y., . . . Godtfredsen, J. (1991). Magnesium substitution in acute ischaemic heart syndromes. Eur Heart J, 12(11), 1215-1218.
  11. Gyamlani, G., Parikh, C., & Kulkarni, A. G. (2000). Benefits of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction: timing is crucial. Am Heart J, 139(4), 703.
  12. Horner, S. M. (1992). Efficacy of intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction in reducing arrhythmias and mortality. Meta-analysis of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 86, 774-779.
  13. Friedman, H. S. (1990). Magnesium therapy of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Magnes Trace Elem, 9, 318.
  14. Gaby, A. R. (2010). Nutritional treatments for acute myocardial infarction. Altern Med Rev, 15(2), 113-123.
  15. Antman, E. M. (1995b). Magnesium in acute MI. Timing is critical. Circulation, 92(9), 2367-2372.
  16. Teo, K. K., & Yusuf, S. (1993). Role of magnesium in reducing mortality in acute myocardial infarction. A review
    of the evidence. Drugs, 46(3), 347-359.

CVD – Mortality:

  1. Chiuve, S. E., Sun, Q., Curhan, G. C., Taylor, E. N., Spiegelman, D., Willett, W. C., . . . Albert, C. M. (2013). Dietary and plasma magnesium and risk of coronary heart disease among women. J Am Heart Assoc, 2(2), e000114.
  2. Zhang, W., Iso, H., Ohira, T., Date, C., & Tamakoshi, A. (2012). Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study. Atherosclerosis, 221(2), 587-595.
  3. Reffelmann, T., Ittermann, T., Dorr, M., Volzke, H., Reinthaler, M., Petersmann, A., & Felix, S. B. (2011). Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Atherosclerosis, 219(1), 280-284.
  4. Chiuve, S. E., Korngold, E. C., Januzzi, J. L., Jr., Gantzer, M. L., & Albert, C. M. (2011). Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr, 93(2), 253-260.
  5. Peacock, J. M., Ohira, T., Post, W., Sotoodehnia, N., Rosamond, W., & Folsom, A. R. (2010). Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J, 160(3), 464-470.
  6. Khan, A. M., Sullivan, L., McCabe, E., Levy, D., Vasan, R. S., & Wang, T. J. (2010). Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J, 160(4), 715-720.
  7. Ford, E. S. (1999). Serum magnesium and ischaemic heart disease: findings from a national sample of US adults. Int J Epidemiol, 28(4), 645-651.

Stroke:

  1. Sun X, Mei Y and Tong E 2000 Effect of magnesium on nitric oxide synthase of neurons in cortex during early period of cerebral ischemia. J Tongji Med Univ 20, 13-15, 42.
  2. Massey L K 2001 Dairy food consumption, blood pressure and stroke. J Nutr 131, 1875-1878.
  3. Muir K W 2001 Magnesium for neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke: rationale for use and evidence of effectiveness. CNS Drugs 15, 921-930.
  4. Amighi J, Sabeti S, Schlager O, Mlekusch W, Exner M, Lalouschek W, Ahmadi R, Minar E and Schillinger M 2004 Low serum magnesium predicts neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Stroke 35, 22-27.
  5. Demougeot C, Bobillier-Chaumont S, Mossiat C, Marie C and Berthelot A 2004 Effect of diets with different magnesium content in ischemic stroke rats. Neurosci Lett 362, 17-20.
  6. Monarca S, Donato F, Zerbini I, Calderon R L and Craun G F 2006 Review of epidemiological studies on drinking water hardness and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 13, 495-506.
  7. Cojocaru I M, Cojocaru M, Burcin C and Atanasiu N A 2007 Serum magnesium in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Rom J Intern Med 45, 269-273.
  8. Aslanyan S, Weir C J, Muir K W and Lees K R 2007 Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial. Stroke 38, 1269-1273.
  9. Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.
  10. Larsson S C, Virtanen M J, Mars M, Mannisto S, Pietinen P, Albanes D and Virtamo J 2008 Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers. Arch Intern Med 168, 459-465.
  11.  Ohira T, Peacock J M, Iso H, Chambless L E, Rosamond W D and Folsom A R 2009 Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 1437-1444.
  12.  Bayir A, Ak A, Kara H and Sahin T K 2009 Serum and cerebrospinal fluid magnesium levels, Glasgow Coma Scores, and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Biol Trace Elem Res 130, 7-12.
  13.  Larsson S C, Mannisto S, Virtanen M J, Kontto J, Albanes D and Virtamo J 2009 Dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake in relation to risk of stroke in male smokers. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 1016-1024.
  14. Larsson S C, Virtamo J and Wolk A 2011 Potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes and risk of stroke in women. Am J Epidemiol 174, 35-43.
  15. Larsson S C, Orsini N and Wolk A 2012 Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 362-366.
  16. Zhang, W., H. Iso, et al. (2012). “Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study.” Atherosclerosis 221(2): 587-95.

Cardiovascular Risk Factors:

GENERAL:

  1. Huang, J. H., Tsai, L. C., Chang, Y. C., & Cheng, F. C. (2014). High or low calcium intake increases cardiovascular disease risks in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol, 13, 120.
  2. Corica, F., Corsonello, A., Ientile, R., Cucinotta, D., Di Benedetto, A., Perticone, F., . . . Barbagallo, M. (2006). Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr, 25(3), 210-215.
  3. Corica, F., Allegra, A., Di Benedetto, A., Giacobbe, M. S., Romano, G., Cucinotta, D., . . . Ceruso, D. (1994). Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnes Res, 7(1), 43-47.
  4. Simental-Mendia, L. E., Rodriguez-Moran, M., & Guerrero-Romero, F. (2014). Oral magnesium supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesemia: a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Med Res, 45(4), 325-330.
  5. Olatunji, L. A., & Soladoye, A. O. (2007). Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci, 36(2), 155-161.
  6. Shechter, M. (2010). Magnesium and cardiovascular system. Magnes Res, 23(2), 60-72.
  7. Seelig, M. S., & Rosanoff, A. (2003). The Magnesium Factor (1st ed.). New York: Avery Penguin Group.

PVD, PAD, Raynaud’s:

  1. Amighi, J., Sabeti, S., Schlager, O., Mlekusch, W., Exner, M., Lalouschek, W., . . . Schillinger, M. (2004). Low serum magnesium predicts neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Stroke, 35(1), 22-27.
  2. Ishimura, E., Okuno, S., Kitatani, K., Tsuchida, T., Yamakawa, T., Shioi, A., . . . Nishizawa, Y. (2007). Significant association between the presence of peripheral vascular calcification and lower serum magnesium in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol, 68(4), 222-227.
  3. Myrdal, U., Leppert, J., Edvinsson, L., Ekman, R., Hedner, T., Nilsson, H., & Ringqvist, I. (1994). Magnesium sulphate infusion decreases circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in women with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Clin Physiol, 14(5), 539-546.
  4. Cohen, J. S. (2002). High-dose oral magnesium treatment of chronic, intractable erythromelalgia. Ann Pharmacother, 36(2), 255-260.

Obesity:

  1. Resnick L M 1992 Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. J Am Soc Nephrol 3, S78-85.
  2. Izmozherova N V, Popov A A, Fominykh M I, Andreev A N, Striukova O, Tagil’tseva N V and Gavrilova E I 2007 [Magnesium deficit in climacteric women]. Klin Med (Mosk) 85, 62-64.
  3. Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.
  4. Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

Central (Abdominal) Obesity:

  1. Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.
  2. Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.
  3. Katcher H I, Legro R S, Kunselman A R, Gillies P J, Demers L M, Bagshaw D M and Kris-Etherton P M 2008 The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 79-90.
  4. Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

High Blood Triglycerides:

  1. Rasmussen H S 1989 Clinical intervention studies on magnesium in myocardial infarction. Magnesium 8, 316-325.
  2. Djurhuus M S, Henriksen J E, Klitgaard N A, Blaabjerg O, Thye-Ronn P, Altura B M, Altura B T and Beck-Nielsen H 1999 Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 546-554.
  3. Singh R B, Rastogi S S, Sharma V K, Saharia R B and Kulshretha S K 1990 Can dietary magnesium modulate lipoprotein metabolism? Magnes Trace Elem 9, 255-264.
  4. Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.
  5. Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

Low HDL Cholesterol (Low “good” cholesterol):

  1. Davis W H, Leary W P, Reyes A J and Olhaberry J V 1984 Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipopritein cholesterol:  a clinical assay. Curr Therap Res 36, 341-344.
  2. Rasmussen H S, Aurup P, Goldstein K, McNair P, Mortensen P B, Larsen O G and Lawaetz H 1989 Influence of magnesium substitution therapy on blood lipid composition in patients with ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Arch Intern Med 149, 1050-1053.
  3. Corica F, Allegra A, Di Benedetto A, Giacobbe M S, Romano G, Cucinotta D, Buemi M and Ceruso D 1994 Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnes Res 7, 43-47.
  4. Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.
  5. Djurhuus M S, Henriksen J E, Klitgaard N A, Blaabjerg O, Thye-Ronn P, Altura B M, Altura B T and Beck-Nielsen H 1999 Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 546-554.
  6. Guerrero-Romero F and Rodriguez-Moran M 2000 Hypomagnesemia is linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol irrespective of serum glucose values. Journal of diabetes and its complications 14, 272-276.
  7. Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

High Blood Pressure:

  1. Resnick L M 1992 Cellular calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and related metabolic disorders. Am J Med 93, 11S-20S..
  2. Pham P C, Pham P M, Pham S V, Miller J M and Pham P T 2007 Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2, 366-373.
  3. Barbagallo M, Dominguez L J and Resnick L M 2007 Magnesium metabolism in hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Ther 14, 375-385.
  4. Touyz R M 2008 Transient receptor potential melastatin 6 and 7 channels, magnesium transport, and vascular biology: implications in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294, H1103-1118.
  5. Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.
  6. Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.
  7. Rosanoff A 2010 Magnesium supplements may enhance the effect of antihypertensive medications in stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Magnes Res 23, 27-40.

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