Magnesium & Sleep (Master Page)

Do you have insomnia or trouble falling asleep? 

Learn how every major aspect of sleep preparation, regeneration, and circadian rhythms depends on magnesium: 

++ Page Overview

Restorative sleep is not possible if we are magnesium-deficient. This master page looks at all four of magnesium’s roles in sleep, followed by a solutions section that shows you how to restore and maintain healthy magnesium levels.

  1. Magnesium prepares our physical body for sleep.
  2. Magnesium reduces and prevents sleep disorders.
  3. Magnesium detoxifies, recycles, and improves memory during sleep.
  4. Magnesium maintains a healthy biological clock and sleep cycle.

Before the solutions section, we look at how modern farming and stress levels have made it impossible to get enough magnesium from diet alone. 

++ Helpful tip

This page has a lot of powerful info to help you resolve your problems. 

If you’re busy or want to understand things better, please read each section’s quick summary.

1. Magnesium prepares our body for sleep

Magnesium relaxes our muscles

To fall asleep, there are certain internal requirements our body must meet. The most obvious is the relaxed state of our neuromuscular system. Think how hard it is to fall asleep right after a stressful event whose adrenaline spike has activated our muscles and nerves…

Magnesium is essential to relax our muscles, and prevent over-excitation of our nerves:

Our muscles depend on a calcium/magnesium balance to contract and relax. When calcium is released from our muscle cells’ endoplasmic reticulum, it makes our muscles contract. 

Magnesium is our body’s calcium antagonist.[1] More specifically in this case, it forces calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum to let our muscles relax.[2-5]

Magnesium calms our brain & nerves

Magnesium prepares our brain and nerves for sleep primarily by regulating our chemical messengers called neurotransmitters:

Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter that excites our nervous system and keeps us awake[6,7].  GABA on the other hand is the one that calms our brain [8], which helps us prepare for sleep. Magnesium regulates both of these neurotransmitters to help us sleep:

First, it reduces glutamate’s excitatory effects by blocking its membrane receptor. [9-11] (Magnesium also protects us from the nerve damage caused by glutamate over-stimulation.)[12] 

Second, magnesium relaxes our brain and nerves because it helps our GABA neurotransmitters to function,[13-16] helping us calm down before sleep.[17] Simply put, magnesium is essential to relaxing our nerves and muscles in preparation for sleep.

1. Summary

It’s hard to fall asleep with tense and cramped muscles. Magnesium allows our muscles to relax before bed.

An overexcited brain (and nerves) also prevents sleep. Magnesium regulates glutamate and GABA neurotransmitters in favour of relaxation and sleep.

2. Magnesium helps with sleep problems:

Magnesium & restlessness

Magnesium also helps us fall asleep by creating vitamin D, preventing iron toxicity and fighting inflammation. These three factors are necessary to prevent sleep problems like restless leg syndrome and sleep apnea.

In the past decade, it has been shown that up to 29% of adults in western populations experience sleep loss from restless leg syndrome, or RLS.[18,19] 

RLS is associated with 38 health conditions, 95% of which involve inflammation and immune problems.[20,21] This is why the main blood-test marker for inflammation (c reactive protein), is associated with RLS, [22] and why reducing inflammation lowers RLS symptoms.[23]

Vitamin D deficiency is also strongly associated with this sleep disorder[24-27], which is no surprise given that it has strong anti-inflammatory effects.[28-30] So how does magnesium help?

Magnesium makes Vitamin D from cholesterol.

Cholesterol is converted into active vitamin D in our body via a three-step process that requires a set of enzymes belonging to the P450 family of enzymes.[31-34] This family of enzymes needs magnesium to function.[35]  

(You can learn more about this on our magnesium & bones page.)

In addition to Vitamin D production, magnesium itself is also anti-inflammatory[36-40] which may in part be explained by its role in creating two of our most powerful antioxidants (glutathione and melatonin). We explore this further in Section 3, but first, we look at the other contributor to restless leg syndrome which magnesium alleviates:

Magnesium, iron toxicity & restlessness

Iron “deficiency” is strongly associated with restless leg syndrome[41-45], especially in our brain and nerves, the areas most capable of keeping us awake. Before we see how magnesium helps, we need to realize that iron deficiency is rare, and usually mistaken for iron misplacement.

Iron is meant to circulate in our blood and usually when blood tests show low iron, it isn’t because we don’t have enough iron, it’s because not enough is circulating in our blood, and is instead building up in our cells. What causes this iron misplacement which is associated with RLS?

A lack of the enzyme ceruloplasmin, whose function is to load iron onto blood transport proteins. [46-48] Due to magnesium’s role in creating proteins  as well as its specific involvement in cerruloplasmin’s recycling[49], ceruloplasmin and the circulation of iron in our blood both depend on magnesium.

Thus, low magnesium leads to iron buildup in our cells. Why is this linked with sleep loss? Because iron buildup in our cells causes oxidative stress and inflammation [50,51]  (which explains why cerruloplasmin is associated with reducing inflammation)[52] and as we recall: inflammation is found in almost all RLS health conditions. 

Simply put, magnesium prevents RLS sleep loss by lowering inflammation and oxidative stress. It does this via production of vitamin D, ceruloplasmin, and our main sleep-enhancing anti-oxidant molecules, melatonin and glutathione:

Magnesium, glutathione & sleep apnea

Glutathione is our body’s most prevalent antioxidant which fights inflammation and oxidative stress in all areas of our body,[53-55] especially in our brain, whose high energy needs result in greater oxidative stress than other areas.[56]

We know inflammation and oxidative stress are linked with RLS sleep loss, thus glutathione helps our sleep that way. Yet a more serious sleep disorder associated with oxidative stress and low levels of glutathione and magnesium, is that of sleep apnea.[57-59]

Sleep apnea affects approximately 43 million adults in Canada and the U.S. combined,[60,61] and substantially more people exhibit symptoms and risk factors. Sleep apnea obstructs sleep, and is associated with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, irregular heart beat, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, depression, and diabetes. [62-67]

Oxidative stress, inflammation, and low glutathione all contribute to sleap apnea. Magnesium  fights inflammation & oxidative stress, and is required for glutathione production.[68-70] Simply put, we need healthy magnesium levels to prevent obstructive sleep apnea.

2. Summary

Magnesium helps with restlessness before sleep by combatting the two main contributors to this problem:

1. It fights inflammation via its role in vitamin D synthesis.

2. It prevents oxidative stress by preventing the toxic buildup of iron in our nervous (and other) cells.

Magnesium’s anti-inflammatory effects (via glutathione production) also help prevent obstructive sleep apnea, which can otherwise lead to debilitating conditions like heart disease.

3. Magnesium for youth & better memory :

Magnesium, DHEA, REM sleep, aging & skills

Similar to Vitamin D, DHEA (Dehydroepi-androsterone) is a hormone made from cholesterol,[71] and its conversion also requires magnesium-dependent p450 enzymes. [35,72]

While DHEA is linked to slowed aging and reproductive health, it also specifically benefits our sleep by increasing REM (rapid-eye-movement) sleep,[73] which is linked to reductions in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. REM sleep is also linked with the formation of memories involving emotions and developing skills.[74]

Besides REM sleep, DHEA also improves our energy, blood flow, immunity, body composition, bone metabolism, brain function, and most importantly it fights inflammation[75] (which we know is associated with sleep problems) thus further highlighting magnesium’s essentiality to healthy, memory-enhancing sleep.

Magnesium, deep sleep & memory

Magnesium itself also directly improves our sleep by reversing age-related sleep changes, the effects of which can increase memory formation:

When we sleep, much of our day’s experiences are turned into memories in our brain. This is essential for intelligence. From the 5 phases of a night’s sleep, the phase which is most associated with memory formation in youths and adults is the deep sleep (slow wave sleep) phase.[76-80] 

Magnesium supplementation reverses age-related hormonal changes in a way which increases our deep, slow wave sleep, increasing the window of opportunity for memory formation.[81]

Slow wave sleep helps us form memories, but did you know…

…during this phase of sleep, the memories we form more of, are the ones based on those experiences which we thought we’d need to remember![82]

In other words: when you’re learning something important that you want to convert into long-term knowledge, consciously tell yourself you will need this knowledge in the future!

By boosting deep sleep magnesium helps physically preserve our body, because deep sleep is the phase during which much of our physical and metabolic repair takes place.[83-86] Less deep sleep is also associated with insomnia.[79,87,88]

Thus chronic magnesium deficiency can lead to a cycle of inflammation/oxidative stress + sleep loss, as well as biological aging of our organs from a lack of nightly repair.

Simply put, our body needs specific nutrients to perform the processes that keep us healthy and prevent sleep loss, and magnesium is needed for more of these processes than any other.[89] Given its vast roles in our physiology, it makes sense that magnesium is also involved in the timing of these vital processes.

And one thing that often slips our attention, is just how essential their timing is to our health:

3. Summary

By converting cholesterol into the youth hormone DHEA, magnesium boosts REM sleep which is when much of our memory formation occurs.

Magnesium suplementation also increases slow-wave sleep: the other phase of sleep where most memory formation occurs.

Magnesium’s sleep-enhancing effects also help with insomnia.

4. Magnesium, melatonin, insomnia & sleep cycles:

Our Circadian Rhythm

The vital processes that keep us alive are regulated in a 24 hour cycle.[90,91] A good way to grasp this is to look at the hormones our body uses to alter its physiological state:

Different hormones excite us, calm us, make us feel great, boost our focus, make us stronger, make us sleepy, and so on. Each hormone’s production follows a 24 hour cycle.  Let’s look at the 24 hour cycle of the hormones that most affect our sleep: cortisol and melatonin [92]:  

Cortisol (activates/prepares body for stress): Cortisol production is high in the morning and gradually decreases to low levels in the evening and night until it spikes again next morning.

Melatonin (promotes sleep and detox): Production is low during the day, rises at 8pm, spikes around midnight, and then drops down in the morning and waits to rise again at night.

Circadian rhythm is essential to good health. When it’s out of sync we experience inflammation, insomnia, and possibly major diseases if the effects last long enough.[93-96]

Magnesium, melatonin & insomnia

Nutrient availability, stress and light are the main factors that can disturb our circadian rhythm and sleep cycle, and magnesium regulates all of these: It’s needed for digestion & nutrient absorption, it helps our adrenals deal with stress, and it’s involved in the creation and healthy levels of the light-sensitive hormone: melatonin.[97-99]

Melatonin lets us fall asleep and is strongly tied to our circadian rhythm[100-104], however it also fights the inflammation and oxidative stress which contribute to sleep loss.[105-109] It comes as no surprise then that melatonin & magnesium supplements help with insomnia,[110]and magnesium supplementation alone also helps.[111] 

Magnesium and our biological clock:

Looking at all its roles in the requirements of sleep, magnesium resembles a master regulator of our circadian rhythm, which is what new research has found:

Our daily magnesium rhythm regulates the timekeeping of our cells[112] and magnesium deficiency is implicated with dysrhythmia: the disturbance of our circadian rhythm.[113]

Magnesium’s benefits reach outside of regular sleep regulation, as it also helps us to both perform better and fall asleep at times when our body is deprived of sleep. [114]

Any way we look at it, magnesium is absolutely essential to healthy, restorative sleep.

This emphasizes the importance of the depleted levels of magnesium in our modern food supply, which have lead to health experts now recommending supplementation to satisfy our daily magnesium requirements.

4. Summary

Our body’s biological clock regulates the 24-hour cycle of hormones that keep us awake and help us sleep.

Magnesium’s central roles in these hormones and their bodily systems means it regulates our biological clock and sleep cycles.

Magnesium deficiency is linked to disturbed sleep cycles and insomnia.

Magnesium & melatonin supplements help reset our biological clock and reduce insomnia.

5. Why Our Magnesium Levels Are Now Dropping:

Figure 1 is a general representation of the trends of the three primary factors that affect the magnesium levels in our body everyday. The fourth line represents our ability to make our own magnesium, which will always stay at zero.

  1. Total environmental stress that drains our magnesium
  2. Magnesium in our soil and healthy foods
  3. Our intestine’s ability to absorb magnesium from food and pills

Our adrenals (stress glands) are magnesium-dependent. Stress depletes magnesium, and inflames our intestine, hindering absorption of dietary magnesium. (Even a healthy gut only absorbs 30-40% of a food’s magnesium.)

Thus our sleep mechanisms are competing for their magnesium not only with our other vital functions, but also with increasing amounts of environmental stress and poor intestinal Mg absorption.

A magnesium deficiency graph that shows how our magnesium intake has declined since 1950, while our sources of magnesium depletion have increased. The depletion of our soils and the increasing environmental stress show us that we can no longer get enough magnesium without supplementation. This strengthens the importance of the relationship between magnesium deficiency and sleep problems
A magnesium deficiency graph that shows how our magnesium intake has declined since 1950, while our sources of magnesium depletion have increased. The depletion of our soils and the increasing environmental stress show us that we can no longer get enough magnesium without supplementation. This strengthens the importance of the relationship between magnesium deficiency and sleep problems
  1. Total environmental stress that drains our magnesium
  2. Magnesium in our soil and healthy foods
  3. Our intestine’s ability to absorb magnesium from food and pills

Our adrenals (stress glands) are magnesium-dependent. Stress depletes magnesium, and inflames our intestine, hindering absorption of dietary magnesium. (Even a healthy gut only absorbs 30-40% of a food’s magnesium.)

Thus our sleep mechanisms are competing for their magnesium not only with our other vital functions, but also with increasing amounts of environmental stress and poor intestinal Mg absorption.

Summary & Solutions:

Summary: Magnesium essential to restorative sleep.

While magnesium may not solve all our sleep problems on its own, healthy restorative sleep is simply not possible without magnesium, because we need it for every major area of proper sleep:

  1. It Relaxes our brain, nerves and muscles before bed.
  2. It fights inflammation and oxidative stress to prevent RLS and sleep apnea.
  3. It boosts REM and deep sleep for memory formation, mental function, and physical repair.
  4. It makes melatonin, helps with insomnia, and regulates our sleep cycle.

Sleep disorders are at all-time highs, and due to the depletion of magnesium in our food supply, magnesium deficiency is now epidemic. Experts agree that it’s now near impossible to get enough magnesium from food, which makes supplementation a viable option for healthy, restorative sleep:

Solutions: Safe & smart magnesium restoration

To restore magnesium to sufficient levels for proper sleep, several measures can be taken:

  1. Take a quality magnesium-chloride supplement to restore whole-body magnesium levels. This is the basis of any magnesium restoration protocol.
  2. Consider using a magnesium sulfate bath or spraying topical magnesium chloride on the body before sleep.
  3. Take a magnesium-taurate or l-threonate supplement for mental health.
  4. Eat a magnesium-smart diet and avoid the tricky magnesium-rich foods.
  5. Do your best to reduce the environmental, psychological and physical factors that cause stress and thus deplete magnesium. More specifically, eliminate your exposure to blue/artificial light several hours before sleep.

Click here to see the magnesium-chloride supplement we trust and recommend.

Click here to learn more about the other types of secondary supplements, including magnesium-sulfate, taurate and L-threonate.

Click here to learn more about magnesium deficiency and the rest of your body parts.

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